The music used in this recording is the intellectual copyright of Michael Levy, a prolific composer for the recreated lyres of antiquity, and used with the creator's permission. Michael Levy's music is available to stream at all the major digital music platforms. Find out more on:

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Augustus of Prima Porta (1st century BCE) By Till Niermann - Own work, Public Domain,

The Tusculum portrait, possibly the only surviving sculpture of Caesar made during his lifetime By Ángel M. Felicísimo from Mérida, España - Retrato de Julio César, Public Domain,

Fresco paintings inside the House of Augustus, his residence during his reign as emperor By Cassius Ahenobarbus - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0,

The Battle of Actium, by Laureys a Castro (1672 CE) By Laureys a Castro -, Public Domain,

The Great Cameo of France depicting emperors Augustus, Tiberius, Claudius and Nero By Unknown - Marie-Lan Nguyen (User:Jastrow), 2008-04-07, CC BY 2.5,

Bust of Tiberius (between 14 and 23 BCE) By Didier Descouens - Own work, Public Domain,

Marble portrait bust of the emperor Gaius, known as Caligula (between 37 and 41 BCE) By PierreSelim - Self-photographed, Public Domain,

Bust of Emperor Claudius (between 41 and 54 BCE) By Marie-Lan Nguyen (2011), CC BY 2.5,

Head of Nero from an oversized statue By User:Bibi Saint-Pol, own work, 2007-02-08, Public Domain,

The Fire of Rome, by Hubert Robert (1785 CE) By Hubert Robert -,-Kunstdrucke,-Poster:-Caesar&start=80, Public Domain,

Year of the Four Emperors (69 BCE): clockwise from top left: Galba, Otho, Vitellius, Vespasian By T8612 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Otho By, Public Domain,

Vitellius By Luis García, CC BY-SA 3.0,

The Triumph of Titus, by Lawrwulfence Alma-Tadema (1885 CE) By Lawrence Alma-Tadema -, Public Domain, The Flavian Amphitheatre, better known as the Colosseum By FeaturedPics - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Relief depicting Roman soldiers carrying treasures from the Temple of Jerusalem By derivative work: Steerpike (talk)Arc_de_Triumph_copy.jpg: user: בית השלום - Arc_de_Triumph_copy.jpg, CC BY 3.0,

Year of the Five (193AD) Clockwise: Pertinax, Didius Julianus, Pescennius Niger, Clodius Albinus, and in the center: Septimius Severus By Cakelot1 - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

A view of Hadrian's Wall By quisnovus from Gloucester, England - Hadrian's Wall, CC BY 2.0,

First page of the 1811 English translation by Richard Graves By Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, R. Graves - Private Collection of S. Whitehead, Public Domain,

A map illustrating the state of affairs in the lands of the Roman Empire Netchev, S. (2023, March 07). The Roman Empire and the Crisis of the Third Century, c. 270 CE. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Battle of Constantine and Maxentius, by Lazzaro Baldi & Giulio Romano (c. 1650 CE) By After Giulio Romano -, Public Domain,

Head of the Colossus of Constantine By Merulana - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

The Milvian Bridge By Anthony Majanlahti from Rome, Italy - ponte milvio composite, CC BY 2.0,

Gold medallion struck at Nicomedia in 336–337 BCE to celebrate the 30th anniversary of his rule By Anonymous (Roman Empire) - Walters Art Museum: Home page Info about artwork, Public Domain,

Constantine's sons and successors: Constantine II, Constantius II, and Constans By TcfkaPanairjdde - Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, By Mary Harrsch -, CC BY-SA 2.0, By Marie-Lan Nguyen - Own work, Public Domain,

La Lupa Capitolina "the Capitoline Wolf" By Unknown artist - Jastrow (2006), Public Domain,

Monogramme of Christ on a plaque of a sarcophagus (4th-century BCE) By User:Jebulon - File:Chrisme_Colosseum_Rome_Italy.jpg, CC0,

A map illustrating the gradual process of disintegration known as the Fall of the Western Roman Empire Netchev, S. (2023, April 18). The Fall of the Western Roman Empire, c. 480 CE. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

The Arch of Augustus in Rimini, dedicated to Augustus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC, one of the oldest surviving Roman triumphal arche By Carole Raddato from FRANKFURT, Germany - Arch of Augustus at Ariminum, dedicated to the Emperor Augustus by the Roman Senate in 27 BC, the oldest Roman arch which survives, Rimini, Italy, CC BY-SA 2.0,

The Provinces of the Roman Empire under Augustus Netchev, S. (2022, March 24). The Provinces of the Roman Empire under Augustus. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Portrait of the Four Tetrarchs By Nino Barbieri (talk · contribs) - Own work, Public Domain,

Western & Eastern Roman Empire (395 CE) Crabben, J. v. d. (2020, January 30). Western & Eastern Roman Empire, 395 CE. World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Julian in a solidus minted at Antioch By Classical Numismatic Group, Inc., CC BY-SA 2.5,

Four of the Five Good Emperors; Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius By Carole Raddato from Frankfurt, Germany - Four of the Five Good Emperors; Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius, Heraklion Archaeological Museum, CC BY-SA 2.0,

A photorealistic reconstruction of what the Roman emperor Nerva Voshart, D. (2020, October 23). Nerva (Facial Reconstruction). World History Encyclopedia. Retrieved from

Romulus Augustus surrenders the crown to Odoacer, illustration (1880 CE) By Yonge, Charlotte Mary, (1823-1901) - Project Gutenberg's Young Folks' History of Rome, by Charlotte Mary Yonge [1], Public Domain,


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